Since 1988, approximately 70% of the archipelago was declared a National Marine Park and is base of several research projects such as, studying the behavior and reproduction of the dolphins, migratory bird species, sharks and marine turtles.
A creature with long spidery legs that lives in the cold, inky black depths of the ocean has been discovered in photographs taken by deep-sea submersibles. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that sightings of the mystery squid occurred in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans and in the Gulf of Mexico. The deepest sighting came at 15,534 feet — almost 4.8 kilometers below the surface — in the western Atlantic off the coast of Brazil.dvice of IUCN - The World Conservation Union, the World Heritage Committee has inscribed six new natural sites on the prestigious World
Heritage List and added substantial extensions to three others. The new sites include snow-capped Swiss Alps, Brazilian tropical grasslands in the Cerrado ecoregion, the Caribbean's richest mountain forest in Eastern Cuba, and the forests of the Siberian tiger. Additional Information can be obtained from the World Heritage Convention website.
IF you intend to come, PLease be attention this is a WORLDWILDLIFE NATURAL RESERVE
Tourism must continue to be monitored on Fernando de Noronha. Invasive species, including rats, mice, and feral cats, have been a serious detriment to the islands’ native habitat (Johnson 1989). A "new", though extinct, species of rat, Noronhomys vespuccii, was described from Fernando de Noronha in 1999 (Carleton and Olson 1999). This species may have disappeared since the time of human presence on the archipelago due to the common anthropogenic causes that extirpate many vertebrate species on islands. The isolation of island ecosystems make them particularly sensitive to human pressures and the introduction of exotic species.
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Se comparada à costa brasileira, a flora marinha de Fernando de Noronha não apresenta riqueza e
diversidade de espécies. Este fato ressalta a peculiaridade do ecossistema marinho do
arquipélago, onde poucas espécies conseguem adaptar-se. Talvez isto se deva à ausência de
nutrientes básicos ao crescimento destas algas, já que correntes quentes empobrecidas de matéria
orgânica sejam características de Fernando de Noronha.
A exemplo do que ocorre em outros sistemas insulares oceânicos, a fauna terrestre do Arquipélago
de Fernando de Noronha mostra uma avifauna exuberante, muito mais rica do que grupos de
vertebrados, tais como: anfíbios, répteis e mamíferos, representados por poucas espécies.
O arquipélago abriga as maiores colônias reprodutoras de aves entre as ilhas oceânicas do
Atlântico Sul Tropical:
Both the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and Atol das Rocas support large populations of migratory and resident birds, Fernando Noronha being home to the largest bird breeding colonies of all the islands of the Tropical South Atlantic. Among the migratory species found within the island group are black noddy (Anous minutus), which builds its nest in trees and on cliffs of Fernando de Noronha using algae collected from the surface of the ocean; brown noddy (Anous stolidus); sooty tern (Sterna fuscata); fairy tern or white tern (Gygis alba), a pure white bird that lays its eggs in the forks of tree branches; red-footed booby (Sula sula); masked booby (Sula dactylatra); brown booby (Sula leucogaster); magnificent frigatebird (Fregata
magnificans) and red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus) (both of which are noted for their extremely long tail feathers) (BAS 2001). Atol das Rocas shelters the largest breading colonies of Sula dactylatra and Anous stolidus in Brazil and of Sterna fuscata within the South Atlantic (Schulz Neto 1998). A few land birds are found inland on Fernando de Noronha, including the endemic Noronha vireo (Vireo gracilirostris), which is abundant in forests and trees (Johnson 1989). Other land birds are cocoruta (Elainia spectabilis) and eared dove (Zenaida auriculata).
ROTATOR DOLPHIN The Atlantic Dolphin
Golfinhos rotadores e enormes tartarugas marinhas escolheram como habitat as águas do
arquipélago considerado o mais bonito do Brasil. O arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, formado por 21 ilhas e ilhotas, ainda é um dos paraísos mais preservados do País, constituindo um
parque nacional marinho. Noronha possui dezesseis belas e diferentes praias. Pisar na areia de
qualquer uma delas causa surpresa: a areia é macia! Em qualquer praia do Brasil continental os
grãos de areia são formados de quartzo e outros cristais, ao contrário de Noronha, que são
formados de resíduos vegetais e animais ? conchas, ossos, penas e algas ? como também de rocha vulcânica e calcária.
The green turtle is listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973, the green turtle was listed as threatened except for the breeding populations in Florida and on the Pacific coast of Mexico, where it is listed as Endangered.
Green turtles continue to be heavily exploited by humans, and the destruction and loss of nesting and foraging sites is a serious problem. Humans have already caused the extinction of large green turtle populations, including those that once nested in Bermuda and Cayman Islands. The status of green turtle populations is difficult to determine because of our lack of knowledge about their life cycles. The number of nests deposited in Florida appears to be increasing, but we don't know whether this is due to an increase in the number of nests or because we have started to monitor nesting beaches more closely.
The green sea turtle is the largest hard-shelled sea turtle. Adults of this species commonly reach 100 cm in carapace length and 150 kg in mass. The average size of a female nesting in Florida is 101.5 cm straight carapace length, with an average body mass of 136 kg. Atol das Rocas is Brazil's second largest reproductive area for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), after Trindade Island (Moreira et al. 1995). Chelonia mydas also reproduce on Fernando de Noronha, and juvenile hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) use the islands for feeding and growth. The TAMAR-IBAMA Project has been monitoring areas of major concentrations of these turtles in the archipelago since 1987 (Sanches and Bellini 1999). Two species of
lizards occur on the island, mabuia (Mabuya maculata), which is endemic and teju (Tupinambis teguxim), which was introduced to control rat populations, but prefers prey such as the eggs and the young of birds and turtles (BAS 2001). UNEP lists two endemic invertebrates, a wasp (Polistes ridleyi), and a species of Gammarus, endemic in lake and streams; an endemic worm lizard, (Amphisbaena ridleyi), abundant on Morro do Pico; and an endemic genus of Dactyloscopidae fish found in a tide pool (Johnson 1989). There are no extant indigenous mammals on Fernando de Noronha, and no mammals at all occur on Atol das Rocas. A large school of resident dolphins are a tourist attraction of Fernando de Noronha. The waters surrounding Atol das Rocas harbor a great
abundance of commercial fishes as well as lobsters, which were one cause of heavy fishing activity around the atoll in the past (Kikuchi 1999).
Fernando de Noronha Marine National Park, covering 112.7 km2 of the archipelago, was established in 1988. Despite the serious loss of habitat that occurred when the island was cleared of trees, many protective measures have been established, allowing the habitat of the archipelago to recover and persist. The offshore islets are relatively undisturbed. The archipelago has a stable human population of less than 3,000 inhabitants, concentrated on the principal island, and a small transient population of tourists and researchers (Almeida 2000). With its interesting landscape, pleasant climate, and morning visitations by the resident dolphins, Fernando de Noronha Island is considered by many as Brazil’s most beautiful island. Tourism began in the 1970’s, and currently there are daily
flights to the island from Natal and Recife. However, the total number of tourists on the island is subjected to limits, and visitors must pay a daily "environment" tax, which increases incrementally as the visit progresses. There is little tourism infrastructure. The sole hotel was adapted from the North-American Airforce base in operation during the World War II, a few guest houses operate near Remédios Village on the eastern end of the island, and there is only one paved, seven-kilometer road (Almeida 2000). In addition to the limitations imposed on tourism, two research organizations, the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA), of the Rotator Dolphins Project, and the Tamar Project (a marine turtle nesting project) are involved in
monitoring ecological impact on the archipelago (Almeida 2000).